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The authors explore the dramatic changes in the law’s conception of young offenders between the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twenty-first. They note that in early 19th C Juveniles were tried and punished as adults. Reformers argued for a more rehabilitative model. An upswing in violent crime moved public opinion once again towards the view that youth should be held to the same standard as adults. Lawmakers now appear to be rethinking their views as scientific evidence emerges adolescent development.

In a 2003 article from CEREBRUM: THE DANA FORUM ON BRAIN SCIENCE, psychiatrist Ronald Dahl discusses the neuroscience of the adolescent brain as well as the confluence of the passion of the teen brain and the cognitive limitations.

Adapted from: Ingersoll, Gary M. (to be published). Normal adolescence. Bloomington, IN: Center for Adolescent Studies Professor Robert Havighurst of the University of Chicago proposed 11 adolescent tasks in developing an overall sense of self while transitioning into young adulthood.

This 1995 report from the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States is a consensus statement, endorsed by 48 national organizations, explores: adult roles in promoting adolescent sexual health, international comparisons, readiness for mature sexual relationships, abuse, abstinence and sexual activity, various sexual activity statistics (age, number of partners, protected or not, etc.) sexual self-concepts, cognitive and physical and psychosexual development, developmental stages and tasks, etc.

This is the first in a series of six training modules published in 2000 by the American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center/Youth Law Center, The goal of Module One is for participants to develop a working knowledge of key aspects of adolescent development, and to learn how to apply this knowledge to their decision-making at critical junctures in the juvenile court process. The guide explores adolescent in the cognitive, moral, social, biological and skill mastery domains.